COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Egypt is a republic with a developing economy. It has extensive facilities for tourists. Read the Department of State’s Fact Sheet on Egypt for additional information.
SMART TRAVELER ENROLLMENT PROGRAM (STEP) / EMBASSY LOCATION: If you are going to live in or visit Egypt, please take the time to tell our Embassy about your trip. If you enroll, we can keep you up to date with important safety and security announcements. It will also help your friends and family get in touch with you in an emergency. Here’s the link to the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program. U.S. citizens without Internet access may enroll directly with the Embassy.
U.S. Embassy Cairo
5 Tawfik Diab Street
Garden City, Cairo
telephone: (20) 2-2797-2301
fax: (20) 2-2797-2472
For after-hours emergencies involving U.S. citizens, call (20) 2-2797-3300.
The American Citizens Services unit uses an online appointment system for those coming to receive routine consular services from Sunday through Wednesday, except for official holidays (U.S. and Egyptian) and the last Tuesday of each month. Phone-inquiry hours are between 1:00 p.m. and 3:00 p.m. The latest Embassy Emergency or Security Message for U.S. Citizens can be found at http://egypt.usembassy.gov
The mailing address from the United States is: Consular Section, Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900. Within Egypt or from a third country, it is 8 Kamal el-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo. Consular information is available on the U.S. Embassy Cairo web site. Visa-related inquiries should be sent by e-mail.
ENTRY / EXIT REQUIREMENTS FOR U.S. CITIZENS: A passport and visa are required. Tourists can obtain a renewable 30-day tourist visa on arrival at an Egyptian airport for a $15 fee, payable in U.S. dollars. Tourists arriving overland and/or those who previously experienced difficulty with their visa status in Egypt should obtain a visa prior to arrival. Travelers arriving from Israel at the Taba border crossing are advised to obtain a visa prior to their arrival, otherwise they are granted either a no-fee, 14-day visa valid for travel within Sinai only, or they may buy a 30-day tourist visa for $15 upon submission of a travel agency support letter. The letters are obtainable from travel agents at the border; however, their fees for providing this service vary.
Diplomatic and official passport holders are required without exception to have a visa before arrival in Egypt. Please note that holders of official or diplomatic passports who arrive without diplomatic visas will not be granted admission to Egypt. The Embassy in Cairo is unable to intercede with Egyptian officials to obtain entry permission for diplomatic and official passport holders who do not have visas in their passports. Such travelers will be required to remain in transit at Cairo Airport until their departure from Egypt at their expense can be arranged. Military personnel arriving on commercial flights are not exempt from passport and visa requirements. The Egyptian Embassy in Washington is currently requiring at least 10 working days, and sometimes much longer, to process official visa requests, an expedite letter from the Department of State notwithstanding, so it is incumbent upon all official travelers to submit their visa requests and passports to the Egyptian Embassy well in advance of travel.
Foreigners who wish to come to Egypt for work must obtain a work permit and work/business visa before arrival. Foreigners can acquire a work permit from the Ministry of Manpower and Immigration offices in the district of the employer, and accordingly are authorized residency in the country. Work permits must be obtained through the employer. Foreigners who arrive as tourists but want to change their status after arrival in country are allowed a three-month tourist/non-working residency visa to change their status from tourist to work. Foreigners in Egypt on tourist visas are not permitted to work.
Visit the Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the most current visa information.
Proof of yellow fever immunization is required if arriving from an infected area.
Foreign residents and their dependents aged 15 or older who are in Egypt applying for work, study, or training permits and staying longer than 30 days require HIV testing. A test performed in the United States may be accepted under certain conditions. Please verify this information with the Egyptian Embassy before you travel.
Information about dual nationality or the prevention of international child abduction can be found on our website. For further information about customs regulations, please read our Customs Information page.
THREATS TO SAFETY AND SECURITY: Political protests and demonstrations have turned violent numerous times in the past year. These demonstrations have included blockades of major streets, burning debris, and establishment of unofficial checkpoints. Participants have thrown rocks and Molotov cocktails, and security forces have routinely used tear gas and other crowd control measures against demonstrators. In January 2013, clashes between protesters and police in Cairo, Port Said, Suez, Alexandria and other cities left over 50 dead and hundreds injured. Demonstrations in downtown Cairo have resulted in deaths and injuries, as well as extensive property damage. Tahrir Square has historically been a prime location for rallies and demonstrations, particularly on Fridays; in late 2012, there were numerous violent political demonstrations in this location. During a protest on September 11, 2012, vandals briefly entered the compound of the U.S. Embassy nearby. In early 2013, violent demonstrations continued in the Tahrir Square area and extended to the Corniche in the vicinity of the Qasr-al-Nil Bridge. Politically-motivated rallies and demonstrations are likely to continue to occur with little or no warning. U.S. citizens are urged to remain alert to local security developments and to be vigilant regarding their personal security. The U.S. Department of State strongly urges U.S. citizens to avoid all demonstrations, as even peaceful ones can quickly become unruly and lead to clashes with security forces or even rival groups.
There have been instances of instability and public disorder in other areas of Egypt, most notably in the Nile Valley governorates of Assiut and Sohag, located between Cairo and Luxor. These governorates, along with the adjacent governorates of Minya and Qena, have been areas of extremist activity in the past. U.S. Embassy personnel traveling to these areas (apart from Luxor and adjacent tourist destinations) require advance approval. Egyptian authorities also restrict the travel of foreigners to these governorates. U.S. citizens planning to travel in these areas should contact the Embassy prior to travel. In Alexandria, political violence has occasionally sparked in the downtown area near the Al-Ibrahim mosque. There have been violent demonstrations recently in a number of Delta cities and in the Suez Canal cities of Port Said, Ismailiya and Suez, leading President Morsi to declare a temporary state of emergency law in the Suez Canal area.
Following the Revolution in January 2011, the number of criminal incidents has increased throughout the country, including crime against foreign visitors. This is likely due to reduction of overall police presence and the diminished authority of police on the streets. Travelers should apply common sense personal security measures when moving about the city, particularly after dark, to avoid becoming a victim of street crime. The Embassy currently prohibits personnel from going to Tahrir Square, primarily over concerns about rising crime in the area and its continuing role as a center for sometimes violent protests.
Sporting events in Egypt, especially soccer matches, can cause heavy traffic disruptions and even violent demonstrations. From 2009-2012, demonstrations occurred at soccer stadiums and in front of foreign embassies in Cairo when Egypt’s teams played in international matches. On February 1, 2012, violence erupted at a soccer match in Port Said which left more than 70 people dead and hundreds injured. The immediate reaction to the tragedy in Port Said led to demonstrations in Cairo and other cities; some of these demonstrations turned violent. In January 2013, following the sentencing to death of persons involved in the Port Said soccer tragedy, violent clashes occurred between soccer club supporters and security forces in multiple cities, most significantly in Port Said and Cairo. U.S. citizens should exercise extreme caution if attending soccer matches in Egypt and should be aware of the potential for an increase in traffic and crowds after sporting events, and should avoid areas where large numbers of people are gathering to watch the events. As always, we strongly urge you to avoid areas where you see heavy police presence or crowds assembling, to exercise caution if within the vicinity of any large public gatherings, and to stay away from demonstrations.
Egypt has experienced several terrorist incidents over the past several years. On January 1, 2011, a bombing attack occurred in Alexandria at a Coptic church. More than 20 deaths were reported and almost 100 were injured, from both the Christian and the Muslim communities. On several occasions in 2012, Egyptian authorities uncovered weapons caches and subsequently arrested individuals believed to have been responsible; these weapons potentially could have been used against both the Government of Egypt and western targets.
There have been multiple kidnappings in the Sinai of U.S. citizens over the past four years. U.S. citizens who plan to visit the Sinai in spite of the persistent threat of terrorist attacks should exercise great caution. Travelers should remain alert to their surroundings and are reminded that crowded tourist areas have been the target of terrorist activities. Travelers should use caution when visiting destination resorts and hotels without significant physical setback and security procedures. U.S. citizens are encouraged to visit the U.S. Embassy in Cairo website for the most up-to-date security information.
The Egyptian government screens travelers before allowing entry/exit through the Rafah border crossing with Gaza. The State Department advises U.S. citizens not to travel to Gaza. U.S. travel groups and/or humanitarian aid convoys that need to cross this border should contact the Egyptian Embassy in Washington and arrange for permission for their trip before travel. Travelers to Gaza from Egypt should read the Travel Warning for Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza.
In the past, Egypt has suffered deadly terrorist attacks in or near tourist sites often coinciding with major local holidays. U.S. citizens should be especially vigilant in crowded tourist areas, practice good personal security measures, and be alert to their surroundings. A heavy security presence is apparent to travelers throughout the country. U.S. citizens do not appear to have been targeted in any of these incidents.
Restricted Areas: Safari travelers to Egypt's frontiers, including the borders with Libya, Sudan, and Israel and parts of the Sinai off the main paved roads, must obtain permission and a travel route from the Egyptian Military Intelligence and the Tourist Police Headquarters via a local travel agency. Police escorts are assigned to accompany foreigners during their tour. Also, travelers may inquire with the Egyptian Tourism Promotion Authority in country or its offices overseas. Reports indicate that the security situation in the northern Sinai area, which is generally defined as the area north of the Cairo-Nekhl-Taba road, remains difficult due to the continuing potential for violence. Travelers should be aware of the possible dangers of overland travel.
U.S. Embassy personnel in Egypt are currently prohibited from traveling to the Sinai, except by air to Sharm El Sheikh. Overland travel by U.S. Government (USG) employees anywhere in the Sinai outside of Sharm El Sheikh is prohibited. In addition, travel by road by USG employees west of Marsa Matruh on the north coast is prohibited. Travel between Fayoum, Assiut, Sohag, and Qena; and to Fayoum is only approved on a case by case basis.
In addition, travelers should be aware that landmines have caused many casualties, including deaths of U.S. citizens, in Egypt. All travelers should check with local authorities before embarking on off-road travel. Known minefields are not reliably marked by signs, but are sometimes enclosed by barbed wire. After heavy rains, which can cause flooding and the consequent shifting of landmines, travelers should be careful when driving through build-ups of sand on roadways. Though mines are found in other parts of Egypt, the highest concentrations are in World War II battlefields along the Mediterranean coast west of Alexandria, the Eastern Desert between Cairo and the Suez Canal, and much of the Sinai Peninsula. Travelers are urged to be especially prudent in these areas.
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CRIME: Since the January 25, 2011 revolution, there have been increased reports of crime. While the majority of incidents reported are crimes of opportunity, such as purse snatching and theft, there is growing concern of more serious incidents that involve weapons, including carjackings. There have been multiple reports of a motorcyclist or vehicle driving by a pedestrian and grabbing a purse or other valuables. U.S. citizens are advised to carry cellular telephones in a pocket rather than on a belt or in a purse. Avoid wearing headphones, which make the bearer more vulnerable and readily advertise the presence of a valuable item. Limit or avoid display of jewelry; it attracts attention and could prompt a robbery attempt. Limit cash and credit cards carried on your person. Be sure to store valuables, wallet items, and passports in a safe place. Travelers are strongly cautioned not to leave valuables such as cash, jewelry, and electronic items unsecured in hotel rooms or unattended in public places. Unescorted women are vulnerable to sexual harassment and verbal abuse. The Embassy has received a growing number of reports of foreigners being sexually groped in taxis and in public places. Travelers are cautioned to be aware of their surroundings and to be cautious going anywhere with a stranger alone. News sources indicate a dramatic increase in reports of sexual assault against women by groups of men during large-scale protests in late 2012 and early 2013. We urge you to avoid areas where you see heavy police presence or crowds assembling, to exercise caution if within the vicinity of any large public gatherings, and to stay away from demonstrations.
VICTIMS OF CRIME: If you or someone you know becomes the victim of a crime abroad, you should contact the local police and the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate. We can:
The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Egypt is 122.
U.S. citizen tourists can forward their complaints for investigation by the Tourist Police Headquarters. For crimes involving
children, you may call the child emergency help line at 16000. For issues involving violence against women and/or general
complaints, dial 0800 888 3888.
The Embassy continues to receive reports of U.S. citizen women subject to domestic violence, sexual harassment, verbal abuse, and rape in Egypt. Women have been groped in taxis and public places. The Consular Section strongly encourages women who seek our assistance to take legal action against perpetrators in order to bring them to justice. Some Egyptian NGOs provide assistance to victimized women within the Egyptian community. Women victimized overseas may be entitled to receive compensation for counseling and/or other services such as relocating back to the U.S. For further information visit theU.S. Department of Justice’s Office on Violence Against Women.
Please see our information on victims of crime, including possible victim compensation programs in the United States.
CRIMINAL PENALTIES: While you are traveling in Egypt, you are subject to its laws even if you are a U.S. citizen. Foreign laws and legal systems can be vastly different from our own. In some places you may be taken in for questioning if you don’t have your passport with you. In some places, it is illegal to take pictures of certain buildings and installations considered to be sensitive. In some places driving under the influence could land you immediately in jail. These criminal penalties will vary from country to country. There are also some things that might be legal in the country you visit, but still illegal in the United States, and for which you can be prosecuted under U.S. law. Don’t buy counterfeit and pirated goods, even if they are widely available. They are illegal in the United States, and if you purchase them you may also be breaking local law. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child pornography in a foreign country is a crime prosecutable in the United States. If you break local laws in Egypt, your U.S. passport won’t help you avoid arrest or prosecution. It’s very important to know what’s legal and what’s not where you are going.
While some countries will automatically notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate if a U.S. citizen is detained or arrested in a foreign country, that might not always be the case. To ensure that the United States is aware of your circumstances, request that the police and prison officials notify the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate as soon as you are arrested or detained in Egypt.
SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES: There are restrictions on photographing military personnel and sites, bridges, and canals, including the Suez Canal. Egyptian authorities may broadly interpret these restrictions to include other potentially sensitive structures, such as embassies, other public buildings with international associations, and some religious edifices. Visitors should also refrain from taking photographs of any uniformed personnel. A number of U.S. citizens have been arrested after unwittingly photographing sites considered sensitive by Egyptian authorities. While they are generally released within 24 hours, equipment is sometimes confiscated and electronic photos are deleted.
There have been increased reports of U.S. citizens being solicited for money at Cairo International Airport from the airport police. In some cases police officers have asked U.S. citizens to produce multiple forms of identification as well as credit cards in order to proceed to the gate waiting area. If you are stopped and asked for a bribe, politely refuse and present your passport, airline ticket, and your entry and/or exit stamp. Try to remember the official’s name, title, badge number, and description, and report the incident to the U.S. Embassy.
Persons crossing the borders of the Republic of Egypt in either direction must fill out and present to the customs authorities a "currency customs declaration" if they import or export 10,000 US dollars or the equivalent in any foreign currency and/or 5000 Egyptian pounds in cash. Traveler’s checks are permitted in any amount. Travelers who attempt to leave or enter the country with more than 10,000 US dollars and/or 5000 Egyptian pounds or the equivalent in another foreign currency will have their money confiscated.
In addition to being subject to all Egyptian laws, U.S. citizens of Egyptian origin may also be subject to other laws that impose special obligations on Egyptian citizens. The Government of Egypt considers all children born to Egyptian fathers to be Egyptian citizens even if they were not issued an Egyptian birth certificate or a passport. U.S. citizen women married to Egyptians do not need their spouse's permission to depart Egypt as long as they have a valid Egyptian visa. Dual nationals residing in Egypt for more than six months from the date of arrival or whose entry visa has an annotation “Egyptian origin” require proof of Egyptian citizenship, such as a family I.D. card or Egyptian birth certificate. In some cases where U.S. citizens fail to renew their residency visas or lose their U.S. passports, dual nationals are required to present their parents’ Egyptian birth certificates and be documented as Egyptian citizens in order to obtain a temporary/replacement entry stamp to facilitate their travel out of Egypt. Male dual nationals not residing in Egypt for more than six months since last arrival and who have not completed military service are not generally required to enlist in the armed forces. However, this is determined by the Military Recruitment Authority. A request is first presented to the Nationality Department at the Egyptian Immigration Authority for approval. The citizen is then provided with a movement certificate along with the approval to present to the Recruitment Authority. The citizen must obtain an exemption certificate through the Ministry of Defense Draft Office before he can leave Egypt.
Individuals who may be affected can inquire at an Egyptian embassy/consulate abroad before traveling to Egypt. Dual Egyptian-American nationals may enter and leave Egypt on their U.S. passports. Persons with dual nationality who travel to Egypt on their Egyptian passports are normally treated as Egyptian citizens by the local government. The ability to provide U.S. consular assistance to those traveling on Egyptian passports is extremely limited. For additional information, see our information on Dual Nationality.
The Government of Egypt is very firm in dealing with anyone attempting to illegally adopt a child in Egypt. Islamic Shari’a law does not allow for full adoption of a child, as generally understood in the United States. Laws in Egypt regarding adoption are unclear and may vary according to a prospective adoptive parent’s religious background. There have been cases of U.S. citizen couples sentenced to two years’ imprisonment for attempting to circumvent Egyptian laws on birth registrations and adoption.
Consensual same-sex relations are illegal in Egypt. Penalties include fines and/or imprisonment. Arrests for such behavior are frequent but rarely reported. For further information on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender travel, please read our Information for LGBT Travelers page.
Services for U.S. Companies: The U.S. Department of Commerce’s Officers and Commercial Specialists are available for counseling U.S. business representatives on market-entry opportunities and techniques. They actively support U.S. companies who are bidding on projects, advocate on their behalf, and assist in removing trade barriers. For specific questions, visit the U.S. Commercial Service website, or contact them by email.
Marriage in Egypt: The Egyptian government allows U.S. citizens to marry in Egypt. For further information, please refer to the website of the U.S. Embassy in Cairo.
While some marriages between Egyptians and U.S. citizens are successful, the Embassy warns that marriage fraud on the part of the U.S. citizen, the Egyptian, or both is common. Entering into a marriage contract for the principal purpose of facilitating immigration to the United States for an alien is against U.S. law and can result in serious penalties, including fines and imprisonment for the U.S. citizen and the Egyptian. At the same time, it is not uncommon for Egyptians to enter into marriages with U.S. citizens solely for immigration purposes. Relationships developed via correspondence, particularly those begun on the Internet, are particularly susceptible to manipulation. The U.S. government urges U.S. citizens who meet Egyptians on the Internet or while touring the country to take the time necessary to get to know them before considering marriage. Unfortunately, the Embassy sees many cases of abuse against U.S. citizen spouses and often those marriages end in divorce when the Egyptian acquires permanent residency (a “green card”) or citizenship in the United States. These cases invariably occur when the relationship is based mostly on Internet communication and very little face-to-face interaction.
Accessibility: While in Egypt, individuals with disabilities will find accessibility and accommodation very different from what you find in the United States. Businesses and institutions in Egypt generally do not make special accommodation for persons with disabilities. Additionally, Egyptian authorities do not effectively enforce laws mandating access to transportation, communication, and public buildings by persons with disabilities. Pedestrian sidewalks and walkways are limited, and when present, often end abruptly, causing accidents. Accommodations on public transportation are not offered for elderly individuals or persons with disabilities. Pedestrian crosswalks are rarely established and not adhered to, creating risk for pedestrians traversing roads in both business and residential areas.
MEDICAL FACILITIES AND HEALTH INFORMATION: Medical care in Egypt falls short of U.S. standards. The U.S. Embassy in Cairo can provide a list of local hospitals and
English-speaking physicians. Emergency and intensive care facilities are limited. Most Nile cruise boats do not have a ship's
doctor, but some employ a medical practitioner of uncertain qualification. Hospital facilities in Luxor and Aswan are inadequate,
and they are nonexistent at most other ports-of-call. The Egyptian ambulance service hotline is 123, but Egyptian ambulance
service is not reliable.
Beaches on the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts are generally unpolluted. Persons who swim in the Nile or its canals, walk barefoot in stagnant water, or drink untreated water are at risk of exposure to bacterial and other infections and the parasitic disease schistosomiasis (bilharzia).
It is generally safe to eat properly prepared, thoroughly cooked meat and vegetables in tourist hotels, on Nile cruise boats, and in tourist restaurants. Eating uncooked vegetables should be avoided. Tap water in many locations is not potable. It is best to drink bottled water or water that has been boiled and filtered. Well-known brands of bottled beverages are generally considered to be safe.
Influenza: As of December 2012, the Egyptian Ministry of Health has confirmed 160 human cases of the H5NI strain of avian influenza in Egypt since March 2006. Commonly known as "bird flu,” the disease has resulted in 60 deaths. Travelers to Egypt and other countries where the virus is being isolated or identified are cautioned to avoid poultry farms, contact with animals in live food markets, and any surfaces that appear to be contaminated with feces from poultry or other animals. In addition, the CDC and WHO recommend eating only fully cooked poultry and eggs.
For the most current information and links on influenza and pandemic preparedness, please visit the federal government’s flu website.
You can find detailed information on vaccinations and other health precautions on the CDC website. For information about outbreaks of infectious diseases abroad, consult the World Health Organization (WHO) website. The WHO website also contains additional health information for travelers, including detailed country-specific health information.
MEDICAL INSURANCE: You can’t assume your insurance will go with you when you travel. It’s very important to find out BEFORE you leave. You need to ask your insurance company two questions:
In many places, doctors and hospitals still expect payment in cash at the time of service. Your regular U.S. health insurance may not cover doctors’ and hospital visits in other countries. If your policy doesn’t go with you when you travel, it’s a very good idea to take out another one for your trip. For more information, please see our medical insurance overseas page.
TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ROAD CONDITIONS: While in Egypt, you may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States. The information below concerning Egypt is provided for general reference only, and may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.
Driving in Egypt, a country with one of the world’s highest rates of road fatalities per mile driven, is a challenge. Even seasoned residents of Cairo must use extraordinary care and situational awareness to navigate the hectic streets of the capital. Traffic rules appear to be routinely ignored by impatient drivers. Any visiting U.S. citizens thinking about driving in Cairo should carefully consider their options, take the utmost precautions, and drive defensively. Drivers should be prepared for unlit vehicles at night; few, if any, road markings; vehicles traveling at high rates of speed; vehicles traveling the wrong way on one-way streets; divided highways and connecting ramps; pedestrians constantly dodging in and out of traffic; and a variety of animals on the roads. Most traffic lights in Cairo appear not to function, but rather intersections are staffed by policemen who use subtle finger movements to indicate which cars may move. Pedestrians should also exercise extreme caution when traversing roadways, especially in high-volume/high-velocity streets such as Cairo's Corniche, which follows the east bank of the Nile River. Motorists in Egypt should be especially cautious during the rare winter rains, which can cause extremely slippery road surfaces or localized flooding.
Public mini- and microbuses are not safe; the Embassy strongly recommends that its personnel not use them. In the early morning of December 26, 2010, a bus carrying 34 U.S. tourists hit a dump truck on the highway just outside Aswan on the road to Abu Simbel. Eight U.S. tourists were killed and 21 were injured. In 2009, there was a serious accident involving international tourist buses on highways outside Cairo in which a number of foreign tourists were killed. Intercity roads are generally in good condition, but unmarked surfaces, stray animals, and disabled vehicles without lights or reflectors are among the many hazards that can be encountered on highways, especially after dark. Embassy personnel in Egypt are prohibited from traveling by road outside Cairo after sunset. In addition, some roads, especially in the Sinai and southeastern part of the country, are off-limits to foreigners. Traffic warning signs should be respected. Please refer to our Road Safety page for more information. Visit the website of Egypt’s national tourist office and national authority for road safety.
Trains are usually a safe means of transportation in Egypt. However, in 2009, there were several collisions involving third-class passenger and cargo trains in the greater Cairo and Upper Egypt areas in which a number of Egyptian nationals were killed or injured. On 14 January, 2013, at least 19 people were killed and over 100 injured in a train derailment south of Cairo.
AVIATION SAFETY OVERSIGHT: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the government of Egypt’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Egypt’s air carrier operations. Further information may be found on the FAA’s safety assessment page.
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This replaces the Country Specific Information for Egypt dated July 27, 2012 to update the sections on Entry/Exit Requirements for U.S. Citizens, Threats to Safety and Security and Special Circumstances.