The U.S. Department of State warns U.S. citizens of the risks of travel to Nigeria and continues to recommend U.S. citizens to avoid all but essential travel to the Niger Delta states of Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Delta, and Rivers; the Southeastern states of Abia, Edo, Imo; the city of Jos in Plateau State, Bauchi and Borno States in the northeast; and the Gulf of Guinea because of the risks of kidnapping, robbery, and other armed attacks in these areas. Violent crime committed by individuals and gangs, as well as by persons wearing police and military uniforms, remains a problem throughout the country. This notice replaces the Travel Warning for Nigeria, dated October 19, 2010, to update information on violent activity and crime in Nigeria.
Since January 2009, over 140 foreign nationals have been kidnapped in Nigeria, including five U.S. citizens since November 2010. Six foreign nationals were killed during these abductions, while two U.S. citizens were also killed in separate kidnapping attempts in Port Harcourt in April 2010. Local authorities and expatriate businesses operating in Nigeria assert that the number of kidnapping incidents throughout Nigeria remains underreported.
In 2010, alleged Boko Haram members claimed responsibility for bombings in the country. A bomb exploded December 31, 2010, near a busy Abuja "fish bar,” killing several people and injuring many others. On December 24, 2010, alleged Boko Haram members detonated several explosive devices in Jos, Plateau State, and conducted attacks against police and others in Maiduguri, Borno State, leading to significant casualties and property loss. In October 2010, Boko Haram members attacked various Nigerian government security personnel and facilities, government officials, and authority figures in northeastern Bauchi and Borno States. On October 1, 2010, two car bombs detonated near Eagle Square in downtown Abuja during Independence Day celebrations, killing ten and wounding many others. A Movement to Emancipate the Niger Delta (MEND) spokesperson claimed responsibility for this attack, while most former MEND militants publicly disavowed any links. Since then, this MEND spokesperson threatened further bombings in Abuja. In September 2010, over 150 members of the Boko Haram extremist religious sect escaped from prison in Northeast Bauchi, some of whom may be participating in Boko Haram attacks in other parts of the country. Since March 2010, five improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have detonated in the Niger Delta region with one to three reported casualties.
Nigeria has scheduled general elections in April 2011, with National Assembly elections on April 9, a Presidential election on April 16, and Gubernatorial and State Assembly elections on April 26. During the electoral campaign, several acts of violence have occurred in various locations in the country, resulting in scores of deaths and injuries. The U.S. Mission has urged U.S. citizens to exercise caution and to avoid political rallies and demonstrations; as such events sometimes become violent and unpredictable.
A loose alliance of militant groups in the Niger Delta region has conducted a number of attacks against oil installations and posts of the Nigerian military’s Joint Task Force (JTF), which had attempted to close the militant camps. In June 2009, the Federal Government of Nigeria offered unconditional amnesty to any militants willing to surrender their arms and accept the government’s amnesty program. While almost all major militant leaders accepted the offer and the amnesty remains in effect, the potential for violence and the risk of kidnapping remains, with violent incidents involving “ex-militants” continuing.
Travel by foreigners to areas considered by the Nigerian government to be conflict areas without prior consultation and coordination with local security authorities is not recommended. The Nigerian government may view such travel as inappropriate and potentially illegal, and it may detain violators. Nigerian authorities detained six U.S. citizens, including journalists, on six occasions, in areas where militant groups had operated in 2008. The Nigerian government interrogated these U.S. citizens for lengthy periods of time without bringing any formal charges before ultimately deporting them. Journalists are required to obtain a special accreditation from the Ministry of Information prior to traveling to conflict areas in the Niger Delta region states. This special accreditation is in addition to the general press accreditation and a valid Nigerian visa which are required to conduct such activities elsewhere in Nigeria.
Many foreign oil companies operating in the Niger Delta states of Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Delta, and Rivers have implemented “essential travel only” policies for their personnel. The U.S. Mission currently requires advance permission for U.S. government travel to these states, as well as the states of Abia, Edo, and Imo, the city of Jos in Plateau State, and Bauchi and Borno States, given the safety and security risk assessments and the U.S. Embassy or U.S. Consulate General's limited ability to provide assistance to people detained by Nigerian authorities in these states. U.S. citizens who are resident in these states are advised to review their personal security in light of the information contained in this Travel Warning.
Nigeria is a multi-ethnic, multi-religious society in which different ethnic and religious groups often coexist in the same geographic area. Travelers throughout the country should be aware that, in areas where such circumstances prevail, there is the potential for ethnic or religious-based disturbances. The States of Bauchi, Borno, and Plateau have experienced violence by fringe sects or inter-ethnic groups in the past year.
Violent crime committed by individuals and gangs, as well as by some persons wearing police and military uniforms, is an ongoing problem throughout the country, especially at night. Visitors and resident U.S. citizens have experienced armed muggings, assaults, burglary, carjacking, rape, kidnappings, and extortion - often involving violence. Home invasions remain a serious threat, with armed robbers accessing even guarded compounds by scaling perimeter walls; following, or tailgating, residents or visitors arriving by car into the compound; and subduing guards and gaining entry into homes or apartments. Armed robbers in Lagos also access waterfront compounds by boat. U.S. citizens, as well as Nigerians and other expatriates, have been victims of armed robbery at banks and grocery stores and on airport roads during both daylight and evening hours. Law enforcement authorities usually respond slowly or not at all, and provide little or no investigative support to victims. U.S. citizens, Nigerians, and other expatriates have experienced harassment and shakedowns at checkpoints and during encounters with Nigerian law enforcement officials. Traveling outside of major cities after dark is not recommended due to both crime and road safety concerns. There are regular reports of piracy off the coast of Nigeria in the Gulf of Guinea. Armed gangs have boarded both commercial and private vessels to rob travelers. The Nigerian Navy has limited capacity to respond to criminal acts at sea.
U.S. citizens who travel to or reside in Nigeria are strongly advised to register through the State Department’s Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP). U.S. citizens without Internet access may register directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, you make it easier for the U.S. Embassy or Consulate to contact you in case of emergency.
U.S. citizens should contact the U.S. Embassy in Abuja or the U.S. Consulate General in Lagos for up-to-date information on any restrictions. The U.S. Embassy in Abuja is open Monday-Thursday 7:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. and Friday 7:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. The U.S. Consulate General in Lagos is open Monday-Thursday from 7:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. and Friday 7:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. The U.S. Embassy in Abuja can be reached by telephone, including after-hours emergencies, at [234(9) 461-4000]. The U.S. Consulate General in Lagos can be reached by telephone, including after-hours emergencies at [234(1) 460-3600] or [234 (1) 460-3400]. You may also visit the U.S. Embassy's web site.
U.S. citizens should also consult the Department of State's most recent Country Specific Information for Nigeria and the Worldwide Caution, which are located on the State Department's website. Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-4747 toll-free in the U.S. and Canada, or by calling a regular toll line, 1-202-501-4444, from other countries. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).